Setting and Targeting Investment Goals

Go out into your yard and dig a big hole. Every month, throw $50 into it, but don’t take any money out until you’re ready to buy a house, send your child to college, or retire. It sounds a little crazy, doesn’t it? But that’s what investing without setting clear-cut goals is like. If you’re lucky, you may end up with enough money to meet your needs, but you have no way to know for sure.

How do you set investment goals?

Setting investment goals means defining your dreams for the future. When you’re setting goals, it’s best to be as specific as possible. For instance, you know you want to retire, but when? You know you want to send your child to college, but to an Ivy League school or to the community college down the street? Writing down and prioritizing your investment goals is an important first step toward developing an investment plan.

What is your time horizon?

Your investment time horizon is the number of years you have to invest toward a specific goal. Each investment goal you set will have a different time horizon. For example, some of your investment goals will be long term (e.g., you have more than 15 years to plan), some will be short term (e.g., you have 5 years or less to plan), and some will be intermediate (e.g., you have between 5 and 15 years to plan). Establishing time horizons will help you determine how aggressively you will need to invest to accumulate the amount needed to meet your goals.

How much will you need to invest?

Although you can invest a lump sum of cash, many people find that regular, systematic investing is also a great way to build wealth over time. Start by determining how much you’ll need to set aside monthly or annually to meet each goal. Although you’ll want to invest as much as possible, choose a realistic amount that takes into account your other financial obligations, so that you can easily stick with your plan. But always be on the lookout for opportunities to increase the amount you’re investing, such as participating in an automatic investment program that boosts your contribution by a certain percentage each year, or by dedicating a portion of every raise, bonus, cash gift, or tax refund you receive to your investment objectives.

Which investments should you choose?

Regardless of your financial goals, you’ll need to decide how to best allocate your investment dollars. One important consideration is your tolerance for risk. All investments involve some risk, but some involve more than others. How well can you handle market ups and downs? Are you willing to accept a higher degree of risk in exchange for the opportunity to earn a higher rate of return?

Whether you’re investing for retirement, college, or another financial goal, your overall objective is to maximize returns without taking on more risk than you can bear. But no matter what level of risk you’re comfortable with, make sure to choose investments that are consistent with your goals and time horizon. A financial professional can help you construct a diversified investment portfolio that takes these factors into account.

Investing for retirement

After a hard day at the office, do you ask yourself, “Is it time to retire yet?” Retirement may seem a long way off, but it’s never too early to start planning, especially if you want retirement to be the good life you imagine.

For example, let’s say that your goal is to retire at age 65. At age 20 you begin contributing $3,000 per year to your tax-deferred 401(k) account. If your investment earns 6% per year, compounded annually, you’ll have approximately $679,000 in your investment account when you retire.

But what would happen if you left things to chance instead? Let’s say that you’re not really worried about retirement, so you wait until you’re 35 to begin investing. Assuming you contributed the same amount to your 401(k) and the rate of return on your investment dollars was the same, you would end up with approximately $254,400. And, as this chart illustrates, if you were to wait until age 45 to begin investing for retirement, you would end up with only about $120,000 by the time you retire.

Investing for college

Perhaps you faced the truth the day your child was born. Or maybe it hit you when your child started first grade: You have only so much time to save for college. In fact, for many people, saving for college is an intermediate-term goal–if you start saving when your child is in elementary school, you’ll have 10 to 15 years to build your college fund.

Of course, the earlier you start, the better. The more time you have before you need the money, the greater chance you have to build a substantial college fund due to compounding. With a longer investment time frame and a tolerance for some risk, you might also be willing to put some of your money into investments that offer the potential for growth.

Investing for a major purchase

At some point, you’ll probably want to buy a home, a car, or even that vacation home you’ve always wanted. Although they’re hardly impulse items, large purchases are usually not something for which you plan far in advance; one to five years is a common time frame. Because you don’t have much time to invest, you’ll have to budget your investment dollars wisely. Rather than choosing growth investments, you may want to put your money into less volatile, highly liquid investments that have some potential for growth, but that offer you quick and easy access to your money should you need it.

Review and revise

Over time, you may need to update your investment strategy. Get in the habit of checking your portfolio at least once a year–more frequently if the market is particularly volatile or when there have been significant changes in your life. You may need to rebalance your portfolio to bring it back in line with your investment goals and risk tolerance. If you need help, a financial professional can help.

Investing for Your Goals

Investment goal and time horizon At 4%, you’ll need to invest At 8%, you’ll need to invest At 12%, you’ll need to invest
Have $10,000 for down payment on home: 5 years $151 per month $136 per month $123 per month
Have $50,000 in college fund: 10 years $340 per month $276 per month $223 per month
Have $250,000 in retirement fund: 20 years $685 per month $437 per month $272 per month
Table assumes 3% annual inflation, and that the return is compounded annually; taxes are not considered. Also, rates of return will vary over time, particularly for long-term investments, which could affect the amounts you would need to invest. This hypothetical example is not intended to reflect the actual performance of any investment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This material was prepared by Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of Patrick Ray, and The Retirement Group or FSC Financial Corp. This information should not be construed as investment advice. Neither the named Representatives nor Broker/Dealer gives tax or legal advice. All information is believed to be from reliable sources; however, we make no representation as to its completeness or accuracy. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If other expert assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. Please consult your Financial Advisor for further information or call 800-900-5867.

The Retirement Group is not affiliated with nor endorsed by fidelity.com, netbenefits.fidelity.com, hewitt.com, resources.hewitt.com, access.att.com, ING Retirement, ExxonMobil, AT&T, Qwest, Chevron, Hughes, Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, Glaxosmithkline, Merck, Pfizer, Verizon, Bank of America, Alcatel-Lucent or by your employer. We are an independent financial advisory group that specializes in transition planning and lump sum distribution. Please call our office at 800-900-5867 if you have additional questions or need help in the retirement planning process.

Patrick Ray is a Representative with FSC Securities and may be reached at www.theretirementgroup.com.

Indexed Annuities

An indexed annuity (IA) is a contract between you and an insurance company. You pay premiums in a lump sum or periodically, and the issuer promises* to pay you some amount in the future. The IA issuer also provides a minimum guaranteed* interest rate on your premiums paid.

With an IA, the interest earnings are tied to the performance of an equity index such as the S&P 500 or the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

With an IA, your interest earnings may increase if the market performs well, but if the market performs poorly, your principal is not reduced by market losses. Indexed annuities are generally subject to a lengthy surrender charge period. Most IAs pay a minimum guaranteed* interest rate (e.g., 3%) on a percentage of premium (e.g., 87.5%). However, if the IA doesn’t earn interest greater than the minimum, cashing in the account prior to the end of the surrender period may cause the investor to lose money.

Note, however, that any return, whether guaranteed or not, is only as good as the insurance company that offers it. Both the IA’s principal and its earnings are entirely dependent on the insurer’s ability to meet its financial obligations.

Also, be aware that buyers of IAs are not directly invested in the index or the equities comprising the index. The index is merely the instrument used to measure the gain or loss in the market, and that measurement is used to calculate the interest rate.

*Annuity guarantees are subject to the claims-paying ability of the annuity issuer.

Basics

The first IAs that were introduced worked very simply; the interest rate was determined by computing the difference between the value of the index to which the annuity was linked on the annuity’s issue date and the value of the same index on the annuity’s maturity date. If the difference was negative (i.e., the market performed poorly and the value of the index decreased), interest was calculated using the minimum interest rate. If the difference was positive (i.e., the market performed well and the value of the index increased), the interest rate used was a percentage of the difference–but usually not the entire difference.

Participation rates

The participation rate determines how much of the gain in an index will be imparted to your annuity. For example, if the difference (i.e., gain) in the index is 7% and the participation rate is 90%, then the interest rate is 6.3% (90% of 7%). Participation rates of 70% to 90% are typical. Obviously, the higher the participation rate, the higher the potential return. Participation rates are set and limited by the insurance company.

Indexing methods

The indexing method is the approach used to measure the change in an index. The original method, which measures index values at the beginning and end of the term, is known as the point-to-point or European method. The point-to-point method is the simplest approach, but it fails to consider market fluctuations that occur in between the issue and maturity dates. This can result in unsatisfactory returns if the market declines at the end of the term.

Another approach, known as the high-water-mark or look-back method, looks at the value of the index at certain points during the term, such as annual anniversaries. The highest value of these points is then compared to the date-of-issue value to determine any gain to be credited to the IA.

A third approach, the averaging method, also looks at the value of the index at certain points during the annuity’s term, then uses the average value of these points to compute the difference from either the date-of-issue value or the date-of-maturity value.

The fourth main indexing method is known as the reset or ratcheting method. With this method, start-of-year values are compared to end-of-year values for each year of the annuity’s term. Decreases in the index are ignored, and increases are locked in every year.

How interest is credited to an IA

With some IAs, no interest is credited until the end of the term. With others, a percentage of the interest is vested or credited annually or periodically, which gradually increases as the end of the term nears. Further, some IAs pay simple interest while others pay compound interest. These features are important not only because they affect the amount of your return, but also because having interest vested or credited to your IA periodically instead of at the end of the term increases the likelihood that you’ll receive at least some interest if the market thereafter declines.

Caution: Many IAs have surrender charges, which can be a percentage of the amount withdrawn or a reduction in the interest rate. Further, withdrawals from tax-deferred annuities before age 59½ may be subject to a 10% penalty.

Interest rate cap

Some IAs put an upper limit on the interest rate the annuity will earn. Say, for example, that an IA has an interest rate cap of 6%. If the gain in the index is 7% and the participation rate is 90%, the interest rate will be 6%–not 6.3%.

Asset fee/spread/margin

Some IAs charge an asset fee, also known as spread or margin, which is a percentage that is deducted from the interest rate. The asset fee may replace the participation rate or it may be added to it. For example, if the gain in the index is 7%, the interest rate on an IA with an asset fee of 2% will be 5%. If there is also a 90% participation rate, the interest rate will be 4.5%.

Questions to ask about an IA

  • What is the minimum guaranteed* interest rate?
  • What is the participation rate?
  • What is the indexing method? How does it work? Is there an interest rate cap?
  • Is there an asset fee/spread/margin? Is it in addition to or instead of a participation rate?
  • What is the term?
  • When is interest credited or vested? Is interest compounded?
  • What are the surrender charges? Are there penalties for partial withdrawals?

*Annuity guarantees are subject to the financial strength and claims-paying ability of the annuity issuer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This material was prepared by Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of Patrick Ray, and The Retirement Group or FSC Financial Corp. This information should not be construed as investment advice. Neither the named Representatives nor Broker/Dealer gives tax or legal advice. All information is believed to be from reliable sources; however, we make no representation as to its completeness or accuracy. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If other expert assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. Please consult your Financial Advisor for further information or call 800-900-5867.

The Retirement Group is not affiliated with nor endorsed by fidelity.com, netbenefits.fidelity.com, hewitt.com, resources.hewitt.com, access.att.com, ING Retirement, AT&T, Qwest, Chevron, Hughes, Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, ExxonMobil, Glaxosmithkline, Merck, Pfizer, Verizon, Bank of America, Alcatel-Lucent or by your employer. We are an independent financial advisory group that specializes in transition planning and lump sum distribution. Please call our office at 800-900-5867 if you have additional questions or need help in the retirement planning process.

Patrick Ray is a Representative with FSC Securities and may be reached at www.theretirementgroup.com.

Planning Lessons for Educators: Addressing Your Financial Issues

Being an educator requires expertise and that you stay current on developments in your field. However, that level of ongoing attention can make it difficult to find the time to stay on top of issues that affect your finances, or to put together a comprehensive financial plan. Whether you work directly with students or focus on research, whether you are just starting your career or have achieved distinction in your field, you may benefit from working with a financial professional who understands an educator’s special concerns. Here are some issues that may not have been at the top of your to-do list, but that can affect your long-term comfort and happiness.

 

Addressing tax issues

 

Many educators, particularly contingency or adjunct faculty members, have multiple sources of income. For example, you may teach at several institutions, and/or earn consulting fees or royalties on your work. Welcome as that income doubtless is, it also may complicate tax planning and preparation. Other tax issues you may need help with include the deductibility of student loan payments, tax issues that arise from pursuing an advanced degree, and the taxation of employer-provided benefits such as faculty housing.

 

Getting tenure is cause for celebration, but it also is likely to affect your tax situation. Moving into a higher tax bracket could mean it’s time to make or rethink decisions about how much you need to save for retirement, the immediate and long-term benefits of various retirement savings accounts–both taxable and tax-advantaged–and how your retirement savings are invested.

 

Planning for retirement and beyond

 

One key to any potentially successful retirement plan is starting early. The sooner you can put a well-thought-out plan in place, the better your chances of financial security. Saving for retirement is like building up an endowment; it gives you the freedom to expand your horizons. Because academic salaries tend to remain relatively predictable (at least compared with corporate salaries) once you’ve gotten tenure, you may have an advantage when it comes to retirement planning. Why? Because you may be able to make more accurate forecasts of your lifetime earning capacity than people in other professions, which can in turn help you make more informed decisions about how you should manage your money now. Statistical analysis tools can estimate the likelihood that a given financial strategy may be adequate to meet your long-term needs.

 

Take full advantage of the tax benefits of your employer’s 401(k), 403(b), or 457(b) plan, especially if there’s an employer match (it’s essentially free money). You can defer up to $18,000 in 2015 ($24,000 if you’re 50 or older), or 100% of your pay if less. Also, any deferrals you make to a 457(b) plan don’t reduce the amount you can contribute to a 401(k) or 403(b) plan. So, for example, if you’re eligible for both a 403(b) and 457(b) plan, you can contribute the maximum to both, for a total contribution of up to $36,000 ($48,000 if you’re 50 or older) in 2015. Beyond employer-sponsored plans, you may also be able to use other tax-advantaged retirement savings vehicles, such as a traditional or Roth IRA. In 2015, the annual contribution limit for traditional and Roth IRAs is $5,500 (plus an additional $1,000 if you’re 50 or older).

 

Investing responsibly

 

An understanding of investing fundamentals is essential to making informed decisions with your money. A financial professional can help you understand not only the mechanics of investing, but demonstrate why a given strategy might be appropriate for you. Most common investing strategies are derived from a wealth of research on the historical performance of various types of  investments. Though past performance is no guarantee of future results, it can help to understand the various asset classes, the way each class tendsto behave, and the function each fulfills in a balanced portfolio. Asset allocation is a method used to help manage investment risk; it does not guarantee a profit or protect against investment loss. You might find assistance especially useful if you are the recipient of a lump sum, such as a cash award, prize or grant for your work.

 

Do you have ethical concerns about investing? Socially conscious investing has entered the mainstream, and there are many investment options that could help you address your financial needs and still support your convictions.

 

Even if you’re an experienced investor, you may need to adjust your strategy periodically as your circumstances change over time–for example, after you receive tenure or as you near retirement. The sooner you establish a relationship with a professional, the sooner you might benefit from the expertise of someone who deals with financial issues daily.

 

Creating an estate plan

 

A will is the cornerstone of every estate plan; without it, you have no control over how your assets will be distributed. You also should have a durable power of attorney and a health care directive.

 

If you’ve amassed substantial outside business interests or intellectual property assets (e.g., copyrights, patents, and royalties), an estate plan is particularly important. Managing those assets wisely while you’re alive can help make an enormous difference in your ability to maximize their benefits for your heirs.

 

Estate planning also can further your legacy in other ways. Charitable giving to your heirs, your educational institution, or another nonprofit organization can both further your philanthropic goals and be an effective tool to help reduce taxes. For example, by establishing a trust, you may be able to benefit from an immediate tax deduction as well as provide an ongoing income stream for you or the charitable institution of your choice. While trusts offer numerous advantages, they incur up-front costs and often have ongoing administrative fees. The use of trusts involves a complex web of tax rules and regulations. You should consider the counsel of an experienced estate planning professional and your legal and tax advisors before implementing such strategies.

 

Protecting your assets

 

You also might want to think about whether you and your family are adequately shielded from emergencies. Types of insurance you might consider include:

  • Life insurance
  • Disability insurance
  • Liability insurance (particularly if you’re involved in applied research projects or consulting engagements)

 

Managing debt

 

Being in debt can make managing all other financial issues more challenging. If you’re in the early part of your career, you may still be facing years of student loan payments; if you’re more senior, you may be trying to pay off a mortgage and eliminate all debts before retirement. Balancing debt with the day-to-day demands of raising a family, seeking support for your work, finding good housing, and saving for your children’s education and your own retirement can be a formidable task.

 

Handling debt wisely can have consequences over time. Having someone review your finances might uncover some new ideas for improving your situation. It also can help you understand the true long-term cost of any debt you incur. Whether you have a specific concern or just want to be better prepared for the future, a financial professional may be able to help. However, there is no guarantee that working with a financial professional will improve investment results.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This material was prepared by Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of Patrick Ray, and The Retirement Group or FSC Financial Corp. This information should not be construed as investment advice. Neither the named Representatives nor Broker/Dealer gives tax or legal advice. All information is believed to be from reliable sources; however, we make no representation as to its completeness or accuracy. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If other expert assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. Please consult your Financial Advisor for further information or call 800-900-5867.

The Retirement Group is not affiliated with nor endorsed by fidelity.com, netbenefits.fidelity.com, resources.hewitt.com, ING Retirement, access.att.com, AT&T, Qwest, Chevron, Hughes, Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, ExxonMobil, Glaxosmithkline, hewitt.com, Merck, Pfizer, Verizon, Bank of America, Alcatel-Lucent or by your employer. We are an independent financial advisory group that specializes in transition planning and lump sum distribution. Please call our office at 800-900-5867 if you have additional questions or need help in the retirement planning process.

Patrick Ray is a Representative with FSC Securities and may be reached at www.theretirementgroup.com.

Holding Equities for the Long Term: Time Versus Timing

Legendary investor Warren Buffett is famous for his long-term perspective. He has said that he likes to make investments he would be comfortable holding even if the market shut down for 10 years. Investing with an eye to the long term is particularly important with stocks. Historically, equities have typically outperformed bonds, cash, and inflation, though past performance is no guarantee of future results and those returns also have involved higher volatility. It can be challenging to have Buffett-like patience during periods such as 2000-2002, when the stock market fell for 3 years in a row, or 2008, which was the worst year for the Standard & Poor’s 500* since the Depression era. Times like those can frazzle the nerves of any investor, even the pros. With stocks, having an investing strategy is only half the battle; the other half is being able to stick to it.

Just what is long term?

Your own definition of “long term” is most important, and will depend in part on your individual financial goals and when you want to achieve them. A 70-year-old retiree may have a shorter “long term” than a 30 year old who’s saving for retirement.

Your strategy should take into account that the market will not go in one direction forever–either up or down. However, it’s instructive to look at various holding periods for equities over the years. Historically, the shorter your holding period, the greater the chance of experiencing a loss. It’s true that the S&P 500 showed negative returns for the two 10-year periods ending in 2008 and 2009, which encompassed both the tech crash and the credit crisis. However, the last negative-return 10-year period before then ended in 1939, and each of the trailing 10-year periods since 2010 have also been positive.*

The benefits of patience

Trying to second-guess the market can be challenging at best; even professionals often have trouble. According to “Behavioral Patterns and Pitfalls of U.S. Investors,” a 2010 Library of Congress report prepared for the Securities and Exchange Commission, excessive trading often causes investors to underperform the market.

The Power of Time

Note: Though past performance is no guarantee of future results, the odds of achieving a positive return in the stock market have been much higher over a 5or 10-year period than for a single year. Another study, “Stock Market Extremes and Portfolio Performance 1926-2004,” initially done by the University of Michigan in 1994 and updated in 2005, showed that a handful of months or days account for most market gains and losses. The return dropped dramatically on a portfolio that was out of the stock market entirely on the 90 best trading days in history. Returns also improved just as dramatically by avoiding the market’s 90 worst days; the problem, of course, is being able to forecast which days those will be. Even if you’re able to avoid losses by being out of the market, will you know when to get back in?

Keeping yourself on track

It’s useful to have strategies in place that can help improve your financial and psychological readiness to take a long-term approach to investing in equities. Even if you’re not a buy-and-hold investor, a trading discipline can help you stick to a long-term plan.

Have a game plan against panic

Having predetermined guidelines that anticipate turbulent times can help prevent emotion from dictating your decisions. For example, you might determine in advance that you will take profits when the market rises by a certain percentage, and buy when the market has fallen by a set percentage. Or you might take a core-and-satellite approach, using buy-and-hold principles for most of your portfolio and tactical investing based on a shorter-term outlook for the rest.

Remember that everything’s relative

Most of the variance in the returns of different portfolios is based on their respective asset allocations. If you’ve got a well-diversified portfolio, it might be useful to compare its overall performance to the S&P 500. If you discover you’ve done better than, say, the stock market as a whole, you might feel better about your long-term prospects.

Current performance may not reflect past results

Don’t forget to look at how far you’ve come since you started investing. When you’re focused on day-to-day market movements, it’s easy to forget the progress you’ve already made. Keeping track of where you stand relative to not only last year but to 3, 5, and 10 years ago may help you remember that the current situation is unlikely to last forever.

Consider playing defense

Some investors try to prepare for volatile periods by reexamining their allocation to such defensive sectors as consumer staples or utilities (though like all stocks, those sectors involve their own risks). Dividends also can help cushion the impact of price swings. If you’re retired and worried about a market downturn’s impact on your income, think before reacting. If you sell stock during a period of falling prices simply because that was your original game plan, you might not get the best price. Moreover, that sale might also reduce your ability to generate income in later years. What might it cost you in future returns by selling stocks at a low point if you don’t need to? Perhaps you could adjust your lifestyle temporarily.

Use cash to help manage your mindset

Having some cash holdings can be the financial equivalent of taking deep breaths to relax. It can enhance your ability to act thoughtfully instead of impulsively. An appropriate asset allocation can help you have enough resources on hand to prevent having to sell stocks at an inopportune time to meet ordinary expenses or, if you’ve used leverage, a margin call.

A cash cushion coupled with a disciplined investing strategy can change your perspective on market downturns. Knowing that you’re positioned to take advantage of a market swoon by picking up bargains may increase your ability to be patient.

Know what you own and why you own it

When the market goes off the tracks, knowing why you made a specific investment can help you evaluate whether those reasons still hold. If you don’t understand why a security is in your portfolio, find out. A stock may still be a good long-term opportunity even when its price has dropped.

Tell yourself that tomorrow is another day

The market is nothing if not cyclical. Even if you wish you had sold at what turned out to be a market peak, or regret having sat out a buying opportunity, you may get another chance. If you’re considering changes, a volatile market is probably the worst time to turn your portfolio inside out. Solid asset allocation is still the basis of good investment planning.

Be willing to learn from your mistakes

Anyone can look good during bull markets; smart investors are produced by the inevitable rough patches. Even the best aren’t right all the time. If an earlier choice now seems rash, sometimes the best strategy is to take a tax loss, learn from the experience, and apply the lesson to future decisions.

*Data source: Calculations by Broadridge based on total returns on the S&P 500 Index over rolling 1-, 5-, and 10-year periods between 1926 and 2014.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This material was prepared by Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of Patrick Ray, and The Retirement Group or FSC Financial Corp. This information should not be construed as investment advice. Neither the named Representatives nor Broker/Dealer gives tax or legal advice. All information is believed to be from reliable sources; however, we make no representation as to its completeness or accuracy. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If other expert assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. Please consult your Financial Advisor for further information or call 800-900-5867.

The Retirement Group is not affiliated with nor endorsed by fidelity.com, hewitt.com, resources.hewitt.com, access.att.com, ING Retirement, Qwest, Chevron, Hughes, Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, ExxonMobil, Glaxosmithkline, Merck, netbenefits.fidelity.com, Pfizer, Verizon, AT&T, Bank of America, Alcatel-Lucent or by your employer. We are an independent financial advisory group that specializes in transition planning and lump sum distribution. Please call our office at 800-900-5867 if you have additional questions or need help in the retirement planning process.

Patrick Ray is a Representative with FSC Securities and may be reached at www.theretirementgroup.com.

Beyond Traditional Asset Classes: Exploring Alternatives

Stocks, bonds, and cash are fundamental components of an investment portfolio. However, many other investments can be used to try to spice up returns or reduce overall portfolio risk. So-called alternative assets have become popular in recent years as a way to provide greater diversification.

What is an alternative asset?

The term “alternative asset” is highly flexible; it can mean almost anything whose investment performance is not correlated with that of stocks and bonds. It may include physical assets, such as precious metals, real estate, or commodities. In some cases, geographic regions, such as emerging global markets, are considered alternative assets. Complex or novel investing methods also qualify. For example, hedge funds use techniques that are off-limits for most mutual funds, while private equity investments rely on skill in selecting and managing specific businesses. Finally, collectibles are included because the value of your investment depends on the unique properties of a specific item as well as general interest in that type of collectible.

Each alternative asset type involves its own unique risks and may not be suitable for all investors. Because of the complexities of these various markets, you would do well to seek expert guidance if you want to include alternative assets in a portfolio.

Hedge funds

Hedge funds are private investment vehicles that manage money for institutions and wealthy individuals. They generally are organized as limited partnerships, with the fund managers as general partners and the investors as limited partners. The general partner may receive a percentage of the assets, fees based on performance, or both.

Hedge funds originally derived their name from their ability to hedge against a market downturn by selling short. Though they may invest in stocks and bonds, hedge funds are considered an alternative asset class because of their unique, proprietary investing strategies, which may include pairs trading, long-short strategies, and use of leverage and derivatives. Participation in hedge funds is typically limited to “accredited investors,” who must meet SEC-mandated high levels of net worth and ongoing income (individual funds also usually require very high minimum investments).

Private equity/venture capital

Like stock shares, private equity and venture capital represent an ownership interest in one or more companies, but firms that make private equity investments may or may not be listed or traded on a public market or exchange. Private equity firms often are involved directly with management of the businesses in which they invest.

Private equity often requires a long-term focus. Investments may take years to produce any meaningful cash flow (if indeed they ever do); many funds have 10-year time horizons and you may not have access to your funds when you want them. Like hedge funds, private equity also typically requires a large investment and is available only to investors who meet SEC net worth and income requirements.

Real estate

You may make either direct or indirect investments in buildings–either commercial or residential–and/or land. Direct investment involves the purchase, improvement, and/or rental of property. Indirect investments are made through an entity that invests in property, such as a real estate investment trust (REIT), which may be either publicly traded or not. Real estate not only has a relatively low correlation with the behavior of the stock market, but also is often viewed as a hedge against inflation. However, bear in mind that physical real estate can be highly illiquid, may involve more work on your part to manage, and may be subject to weather hazards, rezoning or other factors that can reduce the value of your property. The value of a traded REIT will depend on fluctuations in the value of its real estate holdings as well as investor sentiment and market volatility. The value of a nontraded REIT is directly based on the value of its underlying real estate holdings. All REITs are subject to the risks associated with the real estate market in general. Also, some types of REITs are considered more illiquid than others, which could mean problems if you need to sell quickly.

Precious metals

Investors have traditionally purchased precious metals because they believe that gold, silver, and platinum provide security in times of economic and social upheaval. Gold, for instance, has historically been seen as an alternative to paper currency and therefore may help hedge against inflation and currency fluctuations. As a result, gold prices often rise when investors are worried that the dollar is losing value, though prices can fall just as quickly. There are many ways to invest in precious metals. In addition to buying bullion or coins, you can invest in futures, shares of mining companies, sector funds, and exchange-traded funds (ETFs).

Natural resources/equipment leasing

Direct investments in natural resources, such as timber, oil, or natural gas, can be done through limited partnerships that provide income from the resources produced. In some cases, such as timber, the resource replenishes itself; in other cases, such as oil or natural gas, it may be depleted over time. Timberland also may be converted for use as a real estate development. Some limited partnerships pool your money with that of other investors to invest in equipment leasing businesses, giving you partial ownership of the equipment those businesses lease out, such as construction equipment.

Commodities and financial futures

Commodities are physical substances that are fundamental to creating other products and are basically indistinguishable from one another. Examples include oil and natural gas; agricultural products; livestock such as hogs; and metals such as copper and zinc. Commodities are typically traded through futures contracts, which promise delivery on a certain date at a specified price. Futures contracts also are available for financial instruments, such as a security, a stock index, or a currency. Though the futures market was created to facilitate trading among companies that produce, own, or use commodities in their businesses, futures contracts also are bought and sold as investments in themselves, and some mutual funds and ETFs are based on futures indexes. Futures allow an investor to leverage a relatively small amount of capital. However, they are highly speculative, and that leverage also magnifies the potential for loss in a relatively short period of time.

Art, antiques, gems, and collectibles

Some investors are drawn to these because they may retain value or even appreciate as inflation rises. However, those values can be unpredictable because they are affected by supply and demand, economic conditions, and the quality of an individual piece or collection.

Why invest in alternative asset classes?

Part of sound portfolio management is diversifying investments so that if one type of investment is performing poorly, another may be doing well. As previously indicated, returns on some alternative investments are based on factors unique to a specific investment. Also, the asset class as a whole may behave differently from stocks or bonds.

An alternative asset’s lack of correlation with other types of investments gives it potential to complement more traditional asset classes and provide an additional layer of diversification for money that is not part of your core portfolio, though diversification cannot guarantee a profit or ensure against a loss.

Tradeoffs you need to understand

Alternative assets can be less liquid than stock or bonds. Depending on the investment, there may be restrictions on when you can sell, and you may or may not be able to find a buyer. Performance, values, and risks may be difficult to research and assess accurately. Also, you may not be eligible for direct investment in hedge funds or private equity.

The unique properties of alternative asset classes also mean that they can involve a high degree of risk. Because some are subject to less regulation than other investments, there may be fewer constraints to prevent potential manipulation or to limit risk from highly concentrated positions in a single investment. Finally, hard assets, such as gold bullion, may involve special concerns, such as storage and insurance, while natural resources and commodities can suffer from unusual weather or natural disasters.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Retirement Group is not affiliated with nor endorsed by fidelity.com, netbenefits.fidelity.com, hewitt.com, resources.hewitt.com, access.att.com, ING Retirement, Alcatel-Lucent, AT&T, Bank of America, Qwest, Chevron, Raytheon, ExxonMobil, Glaxosmithkline, Merck, Pfizer, Hughes, Northrop Grumman, Verizon or by your employer. We are an independent financial advisory group that specializes in transition planning and lump sum distribution. Please call our office at 800-900-5867 if you have additional questions or need help in the retirement planning process.

This material was prepared by Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of Patrick Ray, and The Retirement Group or FSC Financial Corp. This information should not be construed as investment advice. Neither the named Representatives nor Broker/Dealer gives tax or legal advice. All information is believed to be from reliable sources; however, we make no representation as to its completeness or accuracy. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If other expert assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. Please consult your Financial Advisor for further information or call 800-900-5867.

Patrick Ray is a Representative with FSC Securities and may be reached at www.theretirementgroup.com.

Changing Jobs? Take Your 401(k) and Roll It

If you’ve lost your job, or are changing jobs, you may be wondering what to do with your 401(k) plan account. It’s important to understand your options.

What will I be entitled to?

If you leave your job (voluntarily or involuntarily), you’ll be entitled to a distribution of your vested balance. Your vested balance always includes your own contributions (pretax, after-tax, and Roth) and typically any investment earnings on those amounts. It also includes employer contributions (and earnings) that have satisfied your plan’s vesting schedule.

In general, you must be 100% vested in your employer’s contributions after 3 years of service (“cliff vesting”), or you must vest gradually, 20% per year until you’re fully vested after 6 years (“graded vesting”). Plans can have faster vesting schedules, and some even have 100% immediate vesting. You’ll also be 100% vested once you’ve reached your plan’s normal retirement age.

It’s important for you to understand how your particular plan’s vesting schedule works, because you’ll forfeit any employer contributions that haven’t vested by the time you leave your job. Your summary plan description (SPD) will spell out how the vesting schedule for your particular plan works. If you don’t have one, ask your plan administrator for it. If you’re on the cusp of vesting, it may make sense to wait a bit before leaving, if you have that luxury.

Don’t spend it, roll it!

While this pool of dollars may look attractive, don’t spend it unless you absolutely need to. If you take a distribution you’ll be taxed, at ordinary income tax rates, on the entire value of your account except for any after-tax or Roth 401(k) contributions you’ve made. And, if you’re not yet age 55, an additional 10% penalty may apply to the taxable portion of your payout. (Special rules may apply if you receive a lump-sum distribution and you were born before 1936, or if the lump-sum includes employer stock.)

If your vested balance is more than $5,000, you can leave your money in your employer’s plan until you reach normal retirement age. But your employer must also allow you to make a direct rollover to an IRA or to another employer’s 401(k) plan. As the name suggests, in a direct rollover the money passes directly from your 401(k) plan account to the IRA or other plan. This is preferable to a “60-day rollover,” where you get the check and then roll the money over yourself, because your employer has to withhold 20% of the taxable portion of a 60-day rollover. You can still roll over the entire amount of your distribution, but you’ll need to come up with the 20% that’s been withheld until you recapture that amount when you file your income tax return.

Should I roll over to my new employer’s 401(k) plan or to an IRA?

Assuming both options are available to you, there’s no right or wrong answer to this question. There are strong arguments to be made on both sides. You need to weigh all of the factors, and make a decision based on your own needs and priorities. It’s best to have a professional assist you with this, since the decision you make may have significant consequences–both now and in the future.

Reasons to roll over to an IRA:

  • You generally have more investment choices with an IRA than with an employer’s 401(k) plan. You typically may freely move your money around to the various investments offered by your IRA trustee, and you may divide up your balance among as many of those investments as you want. By contrast, employer-sponsored plans typically give you a limited menu of investments (usually mutual funds) from which to choose.
  • You can freely allocate your IRA dollars among different IRA trustees/custodians. There’s no limit on how many direct, trustee-to-trustee IRA transfers you can do in a year. This gives you flexibility to change trustees often if you are dissatisfied with investment performance or customer service. It can also allow you to have IRA accounts with more than one institution for added diversification. With an employer’s plan, you can’t move the funds to a different trustee unless you leave your job and roll over the funds.
  • An IRA may give you more flexibility with distributions. Your distribution options in a 401(k) plan depend on the terms of that particular plan, and your options may be limited. However, with an IRA, the timing and amount of distributions is generally at your discretion (until you reach age 70½ and must start taking required minimum distributions in the case of a traditional IRA).
  • You can roll over (essentially “convert”) your 401(k) plan distribution to a Roth IRA. You’ll generally have to pay taxes on the amount you roll over (minus any after-tax contributions you’ve made), but any qualified distributions from the Roth IRA in the future will be tax free.

Reasons to roll over to your new employer’s 401(k) plan:

  • Many employer-sponsored plans have loan provisions. If you roll over your retirement funds to a new employer’s plan that permits loans, you may be able to borrow up to 50% of the amount you roll over if you need the money. You can’t borrow from an IRA–you can only access the money in an IRA by taking a distribution, which may be subject to income tax and penalties. (You can, however, give yourself a short-term loan from an IRA by taking a distribution, and then rolling the dollars back to an IRA within 60 days.)
  • A rollover to your new employer’s 401(k) plan may provide greater creditor protection than a rollover to an IRA. Most 401(k) plans receive unlimited protection from your creditors under federal law. Your creditors (with certain exceptions) cannot attach your plan funds to satisfy any of your debts and obligations, regardless of whether you’ve declared bankruptcy. In contrast, any amounts you roll over to a traditional or Roth IRA are generally protected under federal law only if you declare bankruptcy. Any creditor protection your IRA may receive in cases outside of bankruptcy will generally depend on the laws of your particular state. If you are concerned about asset protection, be sure to seek the assistance of a qualified professional.
  • You may be able to postpone required minimum distributions. For traditional IRAs, these distributions must begin by April 1 following the year you reach age 70½. However, if you work past that age and are still participating in your employer’s 401(k) plan, you can delay your first distribution from that plan until April 1 following the year of your retirement. (You also must own no more than 5% of the company.)
  • If your distribution includes Roth 401(k) contributions and earnings, you can roll those amounts over to either a Roth IRA or your new employer’s Roth 401(k) plan (if it accepts rollovers). If you roll the funds over to a Roth IRA, the Roth IRA holding period will determine when you can begin receiving tax-free qualified distributions from the IRA. So if you’re establishing a Roth IRA for the first time, your Roth 401(k) dollars will be subject to a brand new 5-year holding period. On the other hand, if you roll the dollars over to your new employer’s Roth 401 (k) plan, your existing 5-year holding period will carry over to the new plan. This may enable you to receive tax-free qualified distributions sooner.

When evaluating whether to initiate a rollover always be sure to (1) ask about possible surrender charges that may be imposed by your employer plan, or new surrender charges that your IRA may impose, (2) compare investment fees and expenses charged by your IRA (and investment funds) with those charged by your employer plan (if any), and (3) understand any accumulated rights or guarantees that you may be giving up by transferring funds out of your employer plan.

What about outstanding plan loans?

In general, if you have an outstanding plan loan, you’ll need to pay it back, or the outstanding balance will be taxed as if it had been distributed to you in cash. If you can’t pay the loan back before you leave, you’ll still have 60 days to roll over the amount that’s been treated as a distribution to your IRA. Of course, you’ll need to come up with the dollars from other sources.

 

 

 

 

 

This material was prepared by Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of Patrick Ray, and The Retirement Group or FSC Financial Corp. This information should not be construed as investment advice. Neither the named Representatives nor Broker/Dealer gives tax or legal advice. All information is believed to be from reliable sources; however, we make no representation as to its completeness or accuracy. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If other expert assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. Please consult your Financial Advisor for further information or call 800-900-5867.

The Retirement Group is not affiliated with nor endorsed by netbenefits.fidelity.com, hewitt.com, fidelity.com, resources.hewitt.com, access.att.com, ING Retirement, AT&T, Qwest, Chevron, Hughes, Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, Merck, ExxonMobil, Glaxosmithkline, Pfizer, Verizon, Bank of America, Alcatel-Lucent or by your employer. We are an independent financial advisory group that specializes in transition planning and lump sum distribution. Please call our office at 800-900-5867 if you have additional questions or need help in the retirement planning process.

Patrick Ray is a Representative with FSC Securities and may be reached at www.theretirementgroup.com.

How Much Annual Income Can Your Retirement Portfolio Provide?

Your retirement lifestyle will depend not only on your assets and investment choices, but also on how quickly you draw down your retirement portfolio. The annual percentage that you take out of your portfolio, whether from returns or the principal itself, is known as your withdrawal rate. Figuring out an appropriate initial withdrawal rate is a key issue in retirement planning and presents many challenges.

Why is your withdrawal rate important?

Take out too much too soon, and you might run out of money in your later years. Take out too little, and you might not enjoy your retirement years as much as you could. Your withdrawal rate is especially important in the early years of your retirement; how your portfolio is structured then and how much you take out can have a significant impact on how long your savings will last.

Gains in life expectancy have been dramatic. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, people today can expect to live more than 30 years longer than they did a century ago. Individuals who reached age 65 in 1950 could anticipate living an average of 14 years more, to age 79; now a 65-year-old might expect to live for roughly an additional 19 years. Assuming rising inflation, your projected annual income in retirement will need to factor in those cost-of-living increases. That means you’ll need to think carefully about how to structure your portfolio to provide an appropriate withdrawal rate, especially in the early years of retirement.

Current Life Expectancy Estimates

 

  Men Women
At birth 76.4 81.2

 

At age 65 83.0 85.5

Source: NCHS Data Brief, Number 229, December 2015

Conventional wisdom

So what withdrawal rate should you expect from your retirement savings? The answer: it all depends. The seminal study on withdrawal rates for tax-deferred retirement accounts (William P. Bengen, “Determining Withdrawal Rates Using Historical Data,” Journal of Financial Planning, October 1994) looked at the annual performance of hypothetical portfolios that are continually rebalanced to achieve a 50-50 mix of large-cap (S&P 500 Index) common stocks and intermediate-term Treasury notes. The study took into account the potential impact of major financial events such as the early Depression years, the stock decline of 1937-1941, and the 1973-1974 recession. It found that a withdrawal rate of slightly more than 4% would have provided inflation-adjusted income for at least 30 years.

Other later studies have shown that broader portfolio diversification, rebalancing strategies, variable inflation rate assumptions, and being willing to accept greater uncertainty about your annual income and how long your retirement nest egg will be able to provide an income also can have a significant impact on initial withdrawal rates. For example, if you’re unwilling to accept a 25% chance that your chosen strategy will be successful, your sustainable initial withdrawal rate may need to be lower than you’d prefer to increase your odds of getting the results you desire. Conversely, a higher withdrawal rate might mean greater uncertainty about whether you risk running out of money. However, don’t forget that studies of withdrawal rates are based on historical data about the performance of various types of investments in the past. Given market performance in recent years, many experts are suggesting being more conservative in estimating future returns.

Note: Past results don’t guarantee future performance. All investing involves risk, including the potential loss of principal, and there can be no guarantee that any investing strategy will be successful.

Inflation is a major consideration

To better understand why suggested initial withdrawal rates aren’t higher, it’s essential to think about how inflation can affect your retirement income. Here’s a hypothetical illustration; to keep it simple, it does not account for the impact of any taxes. If a $1 million portfolio is invested in an account that yields 5%, it provides $50,000 of annual income. But if annual inflation pushes prices up by 3%, more income–$51,500–would be needed next year to preserve purchasing power. Since the account provides only $50,000 income, an additional $1,500 must be withdrawn from the principal to meet expenses. That principal reduction, in turn, reduces the portfolio’s ability to produce income the following year. In a straight linear model, principal reductions accelerate, ultimately resulting in a zero portfolio balance after 25 to 27 years, depending on the timing of the withdrawals.

Volatility and portfolio longevity

When setting an initial withdrawal rate, it’s important to take a portfolio’s ups and downs into account—and the need for a relatively predictable income stream in retirement isn’t the only reason. According to several studies done in the late 1990s and updated in 2011 by Philip L. Cooley, Carl M. Hubbard, and Daniel T. Walz, the more dramatic a portfolio’s fluctuations, the greater the odds that the portfolio might not last as long as needed. If it becomes necessary during market downturns to sell some securities in order to continue to meet a fixed withdrawal rate, selling at an inopportune time could affect a portfolio’s ability to generate future income.

Making your portfolio either more aggressive or more conservative will affect its lifespan. A more aggressive portfolio may produce higher returns but might also be subject to a higher degree of loss. A more conservative portfolio might produce steadier returns at a lower rate, but could lose purchasing power to inflation.

Calculating an appropriate withdrawal rate

Your withdrawal rate needs to take into account many factors, including (but not limited to) your asset allocation, projected inflation rate, expected rate of return, annual income targets, investment horizon, and comfort with uncertainty. The higher your withdrawal rate, the more you’ll have to consider whether it is sustainable over the long term.

Ultimately, however, there is no standard rule of thumb; every individual has unique retirement goals, means, and circumstances that come into play.

This material was prepared by Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of Patrick Ray, and The Retirement Group or FSC Financial Corp. This information should not be construed as investment advice. Neither the named Representatives nor Broker/Dealer gives tax or legal advice. All information is believed to be from reliable sources; however, we make no representation as to its completeness or accuracy. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If other expert assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. Please consult your Financial Advisor for further information or call 800-900-5867.

The Retirement Group is not affiliated with nor endorsed by access.att.com, Alcatel-Lucent, AT&T, Bank of America, fidelity.com, Glaxosmithkline, netbenefits.fidelity.com, hewitt.com, resources.hewitt.com, ING Retirement, Qwest, Chevron, Hughes, Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, ExxonMobil, Merck, Pfizer, Verizon, or by your employer. We are an independent financial advisory group that specializes in transition planning and lump sum distribution. Please call our office at 800-900-5867 if you have additional questions or need help in the retirement planning process.

Patrick Ray is a Representative with FSC Securities and may be reached at www.theretirementgroup.com.

In-Service Withdrawals from 401(k) Plans

You may be familiar with the rules for putting money into a 401(k) plan. But are you familiar with the rules for taking your money out? Federal law limits the withdrawal options that a 401(k) plan can offer. But a 401(k) plan may offer fewer withdrawal options than the law allows, and may even provide that you can’t take any money out at all until you leave employment. However, many 401(k) plans are more flexible.

First, consider a plan loan

Many 401(k) plans allow you to borrow money from your own account. A loan may be attractive if you don’t qualify for a withdrawal, or you don’t want to incur the taxes and penalties that may apply to a withdrawal, or you don’t want to permanently deplete your retirement assets. (Also, you must take any available loans from all plans maintained by your employer before you’re even eligible to withdraw your own pretax or Roth contributions from a 401(k) plan because of hardship.)

In general, you can borrow up to one half of your vested account balance (including your contributions, your employer’s contributions, and earnings), but not more than $50,000.

You can borrow the funds for up to five years (longer if the loan is to purchase your principal residence). In most cases you repay the loan through payroll deduction, with principal and interest flowing back into your account. But keep in mind that when you borrow, the unpaid principal of your loan is no longer in your 401(k) account working for you.

Withdrawing your own contributions

If you’ve made after-tax (non-Roth) contributions, your 401(k) plan can let you withdraw those dollars (and any investment earnings on them) for any reason, at any time. You can withdraw your pretax and Roth contributions (that is, your “elective deferrals”), however, only for one of the following reasons—and again, only if your plan specifically allows the withdrawal:

  • You attain age 59½
  • You become disabled
  • The distribution is a “qualified reservist distribution”
  • You incur a hardship (i.e., a “hardship withdrawal”)

Hardship withdrawals are allowed only if you have an immediate and heavy financial need, and only up to the amount necessary to meet that need. In most plans, you must require the money to:

  • Purchase your principal residence, or repair your principal residence damaged by an unexpected event (e.g., a hurricane)
  • Prevent eviction or foreclosure
  • Pay medical bills for yourself, your spouse, children, dependents, or plan beneficiary
  • Pay certain funeral expenses for your parents, spouse, children, dependents, or plan beneficiary
  • Pay certain education expenses for yourself, your spouse, children, dependents, or plan beneficiary
  • Pay income tax and/or penalties due on the hardship withdrawal itself

Investment earnings aren’t available for hardship withdrawal, except for certain pre-1989 grandfathered amounts.

But there are some disadvantages to hardship withdrawals, in addition to the tax consequences described below. You can’t take a hardship withdrawal at all until you’ve first withdrawn all other funds, and taken all nontaxable plan loans, available to you under all retirement plans maintained by your employer. And, in most 401(k) plans, your employer must suspend your participation in the plan for at least six months after the withdrawal, meaning you could lose valuable employer matching contributions. And hardship withdrawals can’t be rolled over. So think carefully before making a hardship withdrawal.

Withdrawing employer contributions

Getting employer dollars out of a 401(k) plan can be even more challenging. While some plans won’t let you withdraw employer contributions at all before youerminate employment, other plans are more flexible, and let you withdraw at least some vested employer contributions before then. “Vested” means that you own the contributions and they can’t be forfeited for any reason. In general, a 401(k) plan can allow you to withdraw vested company matching and profit-sharing contributions if:

  • You become disabled
  • You incur a hardship (your employer has some discretion in how hardship is defined for this purpose)
  • You attain a specified age (for example, 59½)
  • You participate in the plan for at least five years, or
  • The employer contribution has been in the account for a specified period of time (generally at least two years)

Taxation

Your own pretax contributions, company contributions, and investment earnings are subject to income tax when you withdraw them from the plan. If you’ve made any after-tax contributions, they’ll be nontaxable when withdrawn. Each withdrawal you make is deemed to carry out a pro-rata portion of taxable and any nontaxable dollars.

Your Roth contributions, and investment earnings on them, are taxed separately: if your distribution is “qualified,” then your withdrawal will be entirely free from federal income taxes. If your withdrawal is “nonqualified,” then each withdrawal will be deemed to carry out a pro-rata amount of your nontaxable Roth contributions and taxable investment earnings. A distribution is qualified if you satisfy a five-year holding period, and your distribution is made either after you’ve reached age 59½, or after you’ve become disabled. The five-year period begins on the first day of the first calendar year you make your first Roth 401(k) contribution to the plan.

The taxable portion of your distribution may be subject to a 10% premature distribution tax, in addition to any income tax due, unless an exception applies. Exceptions to the penalty include distributions after age 59½, distributions on account of disability, qualified reservist distributions, and distributions to pay medical expenses.

Rollovers and conversions Rollover of non-Roth funds

If your in-service withdrawal qualifies as an “eligible rollover distribution,” you can roll over all or part of the withdrawal tax free to a traditional IRA or to another employer’s plan that accepts rollovers. In general, most in-service withdrawals qualify as eligible rollover distributions except for hardship withdrawals and required minimum distributions after age 70½. If your withdrawal qualifies as an eligible rollover distribution, your plan administrator will give you a notice (a “402(f) notice”) explaining the rollover rules, the withholding rules, and other related tax issues. (Your plan administrator will withhold 20% of the taxable portion of your eligible rollover distribution for federal income tax purposes if you don’t directly roll the funds over to another plan or IRA.)

You can also roll over (“convert”) an eligible rollover distribution of non-Roth funds to a Roth IRA. And some 401(k) plans even allow you to make an “in-plan conversion”–that is, you can request an in-service withdrawal of non-Roth funds, and have those dollars transferred into a Roth account within the same 401(k) plan. In either case, you’ll pay income tax on the amount you convert (less any nontaxable after-tax contributions you’ve made).

Rollover of Roth funds

If you withdraw funds from your Roth 401(k) account, those dollars can only be rolled over to a Roth IRA, or to another Roth 401(k)/403(b)/457(b) plan that accepts rollovers. (Again, hardship withdrawals can’t be rolled over.) But be sure to understand how a rollover will affect the taxation of future distributions from the IRA or plan. For example, if you roll over a nonqualified distribution from a Roth 401(k) account to a Roth IRA, the Roth IRA five-year holding period will apply when determining if any future distributions from the IRA are tax-free qualified distributions. That is, you won’t get credit for the time those dollars resided in the 401(k) plan.

Be informed

You should become familiar with the terms of your employer’s 401(k) plan to understand your particular withdrawal rights. A good place to start is the plan’s summary plan description (SPD). Your employer will give you a copy of the SPD within 90 days after you join the plan.

This material was prepared by Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of Patrick Ray, and The Retirement Group or FSC Financial Corp. This information should not be construed as investment advice. Neither the named Representatives nor Broker/Dealer gives tax or legal advice. All information is believed to be from reliable sources; however, we make no representation as to its completeness or accuracy. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If other expert assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. Please consult your Financial Advisor for further information or call 800-900-5867.

The Retirement Group is not affiliated with nor endorsed by fidelity.com, netbenefits.fidelity.com, hewitt.com, resources.hewitt.com, access.att.com, ING Retirement, AT&T, Chevron, Hughes, Qwest, Raytheon, ExxonMobil, Northrop Grumman, Glaxosmithkline, Merck, Pfizer, Verizon, Bank of America, Alcatel-Lucent or by your employer. We are an independent financial advisory group that specializes in transition planning and lump sum distribution. Please call our office at 800-900-5867 if you have additional questions or need help in the retirement planning process.

Patrick Ray is a Representative with FSC Securities and may be reached at www.theretirementgroup.com.

Guaranteed Lifetime Withdrawal Benefit Annuity Rider

Indexed annuities (also referred to as fixed-index or equity-indexed annuities) and variable annuities can be useful options for retirement savings because interest earnings are tax-deferred until withdrawn. These annuities can also be converted to a stream of income payments that can last for the rest of your life (annuitization). However, annuitization generally requires that you exchange your annuity account balance for income payments. Due to growing demand for additional income options, many issuers are offering a rider, called a guaranteed lifetime withdrawal benefit (GLWB), to variable annuities and fixed-index annuities that allows you to get lifetime income payments while continuing to have access to the annuity’s remaining cash value.

Here’s how it works

There are different variations of the GLWB rider, depending on the issuer offering it. Typically, a GLWB rider subjects the annuity owner to a fee for the rider, and specific age restrictions or income limitations. However, most issuers incorporate some common features. Your annuity premium is invested in subaccounts (with a variable annuity) or earns interest (with a fixed-index annuity). Thereafter, you can elect to receive annual withdrawals from the annuity that last for the rest of your life (minimum guaranteed withdrawal). The amount of the withdrawal is determined by applying a percentage (withdrawal percentage) to the premium or the cash value, whichever is greater at the time of your election. Withdrawals are subtracted from the cash value. The amount of the withdrawal will not decrease, even if the cash value decreases or is exhausted.

For example, you invest $100,000 in a variable annuity with a withdrawal percentage of 5%. In five years, you elect to begin receiving minimum guaranteed withdrawals, but the cash value is worth only $80,000 (due to poor subaccount performance). The withdrawal percentage (5%) is applied to your premium ($100,000) since it is greater than the cash value at the time of your election. Your minimum guaranteed withdrawal is $5,000 per year ($100,000 x 5%).*

Some issuers apply a minimum rate of return to your premium (minimum income value) apart from your cash value. In this case, the withdrawal percentage is applied to the greater of your minimum income value or your cash value to determine your guaranteed minimum withdrawal. This option ensures that the amount of your minimum guaranteed withdrawal increases each year you defer receiving withdrawals.

To illustrate, use the same facts as the previous example, but include a minimum income value of 6% per year applied to your premium ($100,000). When you elect to receive withdrawals, the minimum income value is $133,823 ($100,000 x 6% per year x 5 years). Since this value is greater than your cash value ($80,000), the withdrawal percentage (5%) is applied to the minimum income value yielding a minimum guaranteed withdrawal of $6,691 per year ($133,823 x 5%).*

*Examples are for illustration purposes only and do not reflect the actual performance of a specific product or investment.

Issuers may also increase your guaranteed minimum withdrawal by increasing the withdrawal percentage as the age at which you elect to begin receiving withdrawals increases. For example, the withdrawal percentage could be 5% if you start withdrawals at age 55, 7% at age 70, and 8% at age 80.

However, if you exceed the allowable withdrawal amount, you may adversely affect your ability to continue receiving guaranteed income payments. Consequently, you should carefully evaluate your specific financial needs and objectives in addition to the specific restrictions and limitations of a GLWB option.

Caution: Annuity guarantees, including guarantees associated with benefit riders, are based on the claims-paying ability and financial strength of the annuity issuer and may be limited. Annuity withdrawals made prior to age 59½ may be subject to a 10% federal tax penalty.

The step-up feature

It’s possible the GLWB payments can increase over time if the issuer includes a step-up feature with the rider. At certain intervals (e.g., once a year), the issuer compares the annuity’s current cash value to the value used to determine your minimum guaranteed withdrawal. If the current value is greater, the issuer applies the withdrawal percentage to the current, higher value, thus increasing your minimum guaranteed withdrawals.

Access to the cash value

Most issuers allow you to take money from your cash value, even if you are also receiving GLWB withdrawals. However, some issuers reduce subsequent GLWB withdrawals in proportion to the amount you take from the cash value. For example, you have a cash value of $100,000 and your guaranteed withdrawals are $5,000 per year. One year you withdraw an additional 10% ($10,000) from the cash value. Correspondingly, your later GLWB payments will be reduced by 10% to $4,500.

Death benefit

Unless altered by a death benefit provision or rider, annuities with the GLWB rider usually pay a death benefit equal to the greater of the remaining cash value, or the remaining premium, if any, less withdrawals and applicable surrender charges. Generally, GLWB withdrawals are available only to the annuity owner and not his/her beneficiaries, unless the beneficiary is the owner’s surviving spouse, in which case the withdrawals may be continued for the benefit of the spouse.

GLWB costs

Issuers generally charge an annual fee for the GLWB rider, usually as a percentage of the annuity’s cash value. Also, the step-up feature associated with a GLWB may subject the annuity owner to an increased cost in addition to the regular fee charged for GLWB option. Thus, you should consider this fact when evaluating such a feature. Review annuity sales materials, the prospectus, and the contract for information on charges and fees.

Some other living benefit riders

The GLWB is one of many living benefit riders available on some annuities that provides a minimum accumulation value or income. As with most annuity riders, they may differ depending on the issuer offering them. Also, since these benefits are offered as riders, there is usually a charge associated with each one.

Guaranteed minimum payments benefit

The guaranteed minimum payments benefit allows you to recover your total premium through annual payments from your annuity, even if the cash value is less than the premium due to poor market performance (and not withdrawals).

Guaranteed minimum income benefit

The guaranteed minimum income benefit pays a minimum yearly income even if your annuity decreases in value due to poor subaccount performance. But you must own the annuity for a minimum number of years before exercising the rider, and you must exchange the cash value of the annuity in return for the minimum payments (annuitization).

Guaranteed accumulation benefit

This rider guarantees the return of your premium (less withdrawals) regardless of the actual investment performance of your annuity subaccounts at the end of a stated period of time.

Is it right for you?

The GLWB rider can be a good idea if you want a fixed income but don’t like the idea of giving up access to your money that annuitization requires. However, like all deferred annuities, they are intended as long-term investments, suitable for retirement funding. The annuity’s cash value may be subject to market fluctuations and investment risk. In addition, GLWB withdrawals are subtracted from the annuity’s cash value.

Caution: Based on the guarantees of the issuing company, it may be possible to lose money with this type of investment. Any guaranteed minimum rate of return is contingent upon holding the indexed annuity until the end of the term.

This material was prepared by Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of Patrick Ray, and The Retirement Group or FSC Financial Corp. This information should not be construed as investment advice. Neither the named Representatives nor Broker/Dealer gives tax or legal advice. All information is believed to be from reliable sources; however, we make no representation as to its completeness or accuracy. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If other expert assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. Please consult your Financial Advisor for further information or call 800-900-5867.

The Retirement Group is not affiliated with nor endorsed by Alcatel-Lucent, Bank of America, fidelity.com, netbenefits.fidelity.com, hewitt.com, resources.hewitt.com, access.att.com, ING Retirement, AT&T, Qwest, Chevron, Hughes, Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, ExxonMobil, Glaxosmithkline, Merck, Pfizer, Verizon or by your employer. We are an independent financial advisory group that specializes in transition planning and lump sum distribution. Please call our office at 800-900-5867 if you have additional questions or need help in the retirement planning process.

Patrick Ray is a Representative with FSC Securities and may be reached at www.theretirementgroup.com.

Health Savings Accounts: Are They Just What the Doctor Ordered?

Are health insurance premiums taking too big of a bite out of your budget? Do you wish you had better control over how you spend your health-care dollars? If so, you may be interested in an alternative to traditional health insurance called a health savings account (HSA).

How does this health-care option work?

An HSA is a tax-advantaged account that’s paired with a high-deductible health plan (HDHP). Let’s look at how an HSA works with an HDHP to enable you to cover your current health-care costs and also save for your future needs.

Before opening an HSA, you must first enroll in an HDHP, either on your own or through your employer. An HDHP is “catastrophic” health coverage that pays benefits only after you’ve satisfied a high annual deductible. (Some preventative care, such as routine physicals, may be covered without being subject to the deductible). For 2016, the annual deductible for an HSA-qualified HDHP must be at least $1,300 for individual coverage and $2,600 for family coverage. However, your deductible may be higher, depending on the plan.

Once you’ve satisfied your deductible, the HDHP will provide comprehensive coverage for your medical expenses (though you may continue to owe co-payments or coinsurance costs until you reach your plan’s annual out-of-pocket limit). A qualifying HDHP must limit annual out-of-pocket expenses (including the deductible) to no more than $6,550 for individual coverage and $13,100 for family coverage for 2016. Once this limit is reached, the HDHP will cover 100% of your costs, as outlined in your policy. Because you’re shouldering a greater portion of your health-care costs, you’ll usually pay a much lower premium for an HDHP than for traditional health insurance, allowing you to contribute the premium dollars you’re saving to your HSA. Your employer may also contribute to your HSA, or pay part of your HDHP premium. Then, when you need medical care, you can withdraw HSA funds to cover your expenses, or opt to pay your costs out-of-pocket if you want to save your account funds.

An HSA can be a powerful savings tool. Because there’s no “use it or lose it” provision, funds roll over from year to year. And the account is yours, so you can keep it even if you change employers or lose your job. If your health expenses are relatively low, you may be able to build up a significant balance in your HSA over time. You can even let your money grow until retirement, when your health expenses are likely to be substantial. However, HSAs aren’t foolproof. If you have relatively high health expenses (especially within the first year or two of opening your account, before you’ve built up a balance), you could deplete your HSA or even face a shortfall.

How can an HSA help you save on taxes?

HSAs offer several valuable tax benefits:

  • You may be able to make pretax contributions via payroll deduction through your employer, reducing your current income tax.
  • If you make contributions on your own using after-tax dollars, they’re deductible from your federal income tax (and perhaps from your state income tax) whether you itemize or not. You can also deduct contributions made on your behalf by family members.
  • Contributions to your HSA, and any interest or earnings, grow tax deferred.
  • Contributions and any earnings you withdraw will be tax free if they’re used to pay qualified medical expenses.

Consult a tax professional if you have questions about the tax advantages offered by an HSA

Can anyone open an HSA?

Any individual with qualifying HDHP coverage can open an HSA. However, you won’t be eligible to open an HSA if you’re already covered by another health plan (although some specialized health plans are exempt from this provision). You’re also out of luck if you’re 65 and enrolled in Medicare or if you can be claimed as a dependent on someone else’s tax return.

How much can you contribute to an HSA?

For 2016, you can contribute up to $3,350 for individual coverage and $6,750 for family coverage. This annual limit applies to all contributions, whether they’re made by you, your employer, or your family members. You can make contributions up to April 15th of the following year (i.e., you can make 2015 contributions up to April 15, 2016). If you’re 55 or older, you may also be eligible to make “catch-up contributions” to your HSA, but you can’t contribute anything once you reach age 65 and enroll in Medicare.

Can you invest your HSA funds?

HSAs typically offer several savings and investment options. These may include interest-earning savings, checking, and money market accounts, or investments such as stocks, bonds, and mutual funds that offer the potential to earn higher returns but carry more risk (including the risk of loss of principal). Make sure that you carefully consider the investment objectives, risks, charges, and expenses associated with each option before investing. A financial professional can help you decide which savings or investment options are appropriate.

How can you use your HSA funds?

You can use your HSA funds for many types of health-care expenses, including prescription drugs, eyeglasses, deductibles, and co-payments. Although you can’t use funds to pay regular health insurance premiums, you can withdraw money to pay for specialized types of insurance such as long-term care or disability insurance. IRS Publication 502 contains a list of allowable expenses.

There’s no rule against using your HSA funds for expenses that aren’t health-care related, but watch out–you’ll pay a 20% penalty if you withdraw money and use it for nonqualified expenses, and you’ll owe income taxes as well. Once you reach age 65, however, this penalty no longer applies, though you’ll owe income taxes on any money you withdraw that isn’t used for qualified medical expenses.

Questions to consider

  • How much will you save on your health insurance premium by enrolling in an HDHP? If you’re currently paying a high premium for individual health insurance (perhaps because you’re self-employed), your savings will be greater than if you currently have group coverage and your employer is paying a substantial portion of the premium.
  • What will your annual out-of-pocket costs be under the HDHP you’re considering? Estimate these based on your current health expenses. The lower your costs, the easier it may be to accumulate HSA funds.
  • How much can you afford to contribute to your HSA every year? Contributing as much as you can on a regular basis is key to building up a cushion against future expenses.
  • Will your employer contribute to your HSA? Employer contributions can help offset the increased financial risk that you’re assuming by enrolling in an HDHP rather than traditional employer-sponsored health insurance.
  • Are you willing to take on more responsibility for your own health care? For example, to achieve the maximum cost savings, you may need to research costs and negotiate fees with health providers when paying out-of-pocket.
  • How does the coverage provided by the HDHP compare with your current health plan? Don’t sacrifice coverage to save money. Read all plan materials to make sure you understand benefits, exclusions, and all costs.
  • What tax savings might you expect? Tax savings will be greatest for individuals in higher income tax brackets. Ask your tax advisor or financial professional for help in determining how HSA contributions will impact your taxes.

This material was prepared by Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc., and does not necessarily represent the views of Patrick Ray, and The Retirement Group or FSC Financial Corp. This information should not be construed as investment advice. Neither the named Representatives nor Broker/Dealer gives tax or legal advice. All information is believed to be from reliable sources; however, we make no representation as to its completeness or accuracy. The publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting or other professional services. If other expert assistance is needed, the reader is advised to engage the services of a competent professional. Please consult your Financial Advisor for further information or call 800-900-5867.

The Retirement Group is not affiliated with nor endorsed by fidelity.com, netbenefits.fidelity.com, hewitt.com, resources.hewitt.com, access.att.com, ING Retirement, Alcatel-Lucent, AT&T, Bank of America, Qwest, Chevron, Hughes, ExxonMobil, Glaxosmithkline, Merck, Northrop Grumman, Pfizer, Raytheon, Verizon or by your employer. We are an independent financial advisory group that specializes in transition planning and lump sum distribution. Please call our office at 800-900-5867 if you have additional questions or need help in the retirement planning process.

Patrick Ray is a Representative with FSC Securities and may be reached at www.theretirementgroup.com.